Advance (XPS) X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy Services

X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS), also known as Electron Spectroscopy for Chemical Analysis (ESCA), is a sophisticated surface analysis technology that offers detailed insights into the elemental composition and chemical states of materials at the nanoscale. 

This powerful analytical technique is instrumental in various fields, including materials science, chemistry, physics, and engineering, providing essential information that aids in the development and characterization of materials and surfaces.

Electron Spectroscopy for Chemical Analysis
X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy Analysis

How XPS works

By measuring the kinetic energy and the number of electrons that escape from the top 1 to 10 nm of the material’s surface, XPS can deduce the elemental composition, empirical formula, chemical state, and electronic state of the elements within the material.

This advanced XPS analysis yields a high degree of surface specificity, making it an invaluable tool in the investigation of surface coatings, thin films, and interfaces.

Moreover, XPS is a cornerstone in the realm of surface analysis technology, offering the ability to analyze a wide array of materials, including metals, ceramics, polymers, and semiconductors.

The versatility and depth of information provided by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy make it a critical technique for researchers and professionals looking to delve into the composition and properties of materials at the microscopic level.

Whether it’s for troubleshooting material failures, enhancing product performance, or driving innovation in material design, XPS serves as a key analytical resource, pushing the boundaries of what is possible in materials analysis and development.

XPS Non-Destructive Analysis

Benefit of XPS 

X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS) is a cutting-edge surface analysis technology that provides unparalleled insights into the elemental composition and chemical states of materials at the nanoscale.

With the introduction of advanced XPS analysis services, including the world’s first scan-focused X-ray source and automated analysis capabilities, users can leverage several unique benefits:

  1. Enhanced Spatial Resolution: The world’s first scan-focused X-ray source in our service allows for incredibly detailed imaging of surface topographies and compositions. This breakthrough technology significantly enhances spatial resolution, enabling more precise and localized analysis.
  2. Automated Analysis Capabilities: Our service incorporates advanced algorithms and software that automate data processing, drastically reducing analysis time and human error. This automation ensures consistent, reliable results and frees up researchers to focus on interpretation and application of the data.
  3. Depth Profiling: Through advanced XPS analysis, our service offers depth profiling capabilities that provide a detailed compositional analysis of different layers within a sample. This is invaluable for the investigation of coatings, interfaces, and thin films.
  4. Quantitative Analysis: XPS not only identifies what elements are present on a material’s surface but also quantifies them without the need for standards, offering a more comprehensive analysis compared to other surface analysis technologies.
  5. Chemical State Information: XPS can determine the chemical states of the elements detected, providing insights into the chemical and electronic environment of the surface atoms. This information is crucial for understanding material properties and behavior.
  6. Material Versatility: XPS is applicable to a wide range of materials, including metals, glasses, polymers, and semiconductors, making it a versatile tool for many sectors such as electronics, automotive, aerospace, and healthcare.
  7. Non-Destructive Analysis: X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy is a surface-sensitive, non-destructive analysis method, preserving the integrity of the sample while providing crucial surface composition and chemical state information.

In-depth XPS Capabilities

X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) determines the elemental composition and chemical and electronic states within a sample by analyzing the binding energy and number of photoelectrons released from up to 10 nanometers beneath the material’s surface due to X-ray excitation. 

Ion beam etching further allows XPS to perform depth profiling, an essential feature for analyzing thin films and interfaces. 

Wintech Nano provides the highest-performing XPS capabilities, including automated analysis for small areas and the world’s inaugural scan-focused X-ray source, which enables precise examination of areas as minuscule as 7.5 microns, delivering highly sensitive analytical outcomes. 

Its fully automated system simplifies the process of automatically neutralizing insulating samples, offers advanced depth profiling, and supports a 75x75mm stage. 

The system ensures highly reliable measurements with an exceptional energy resolution below 0.48 eV (Ag3d5/2), making XPS an invaluable tool for material surface characterization, analysis of elemental chemical states, and depth profiling in various films.

Surface Contamination in Coronary Stent

Advanced Analysis Techniques 

X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS) is a sophisticated analytical method that utilizes the principle of photoelectric effect to discern the composition and electronic states of materials within a very thin surface layer, typically ranging from 1 to 10 nanometers in depth. Here’s how XPS leverages binding energy and the number of emitted photoelectrons to achieve this:

  1. Illumination with X-rays: The sample is irradiated with X-rays, which have sufficient energy to dislodge inner-shell electrons from atoms near the surface of the material.
  2. Emission of Photoelectrons: When the X-rays hit the material, they impart energy to electrons, causing them to be ejected from their atomic orbitals. The energy required to eject these electrons is specific to each element and its chemical state, known as the binding energy.
  3. Measurement of Kinetic Energy: The kinetic energy of the emitted photoelectrons is measured as they are collected by an energy analyzer. This kinetic energy is directly related to the binding energy of the electrons, which can be calculated using the known energy of the incident X-rays.
  4. Determination of Elemental Composition: By analyzing the binding energy values, XPS can identify the elements present in the sample because each element has a unique set of binding energies. Furthermore, the intensity of the photoelectron peaks correlates with the concentration of the respective elements, allowing for a quantitative analysis.
  5. Chemical State Analysis: Beyond identifying elements, XPS can also determine the chemical states of those elements. Since the binding energy of an electron can shift slightly depending on the chemical environment (e.g., different oxidation states or bonding to different atoms), analyzing these shifts can provide insights into the chemical states of the elements.
  6. Depth Profiling: While standard XPS provides information from the top 1-10 nm of the material’s surface, controlled ion beam etching can be used to remove thin layers sequentially, allowing for analysis at greater depths. This depth profiling capability enables researchers to construct a detailed composition profile across the various layers of a material, which is particularly useful for the study of coatings, interfaces, or multilayer structures.

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High-Performance Depth Profiling

Ion beam ablation, particularly when implemented using a Focused Ion Beam (FIB), is a powerful technique for depth profiling in X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS) analyses, offering precise control over material removal for studying thin film layers and interfaces.

  1. Layer-by-Layer Removal: Ion beam ablation employs ions, often argon, to systematically sputter away material from the sample surface.  By directing the ion beam at the sample, atoms or molecules from the very top layer are physically removed, allowing the XPS to analyze progressively deeper layers.For thin films or layered materials, this means that XPS can characterize each layer sequentially, from the outermost surface down to the substrate.
  2. Controlled Sputtering: The Focused Ion Beam (FIB) technique enhances this process by providing a highly focused ion beam, which can be precisely directed to target very small areas with minimal lateral spread. This is particularly advantageous for localized analysis or when the sample consists of small or delicate features that require precise material removal without damaging surrounding areas.
  3. Depth Profiling Capability: As the ion beam removes each layer, XPS measurements are taken at incremental depths. This process builds a comprehensive profile that details the elemental composition and chemical states at various depths, critical for understanding thin film structures, interfaces, coatings, and gradients within the material.
  4. Interface Analysis: FIB-enhanced depth profiling is crucial for analyzing the interfaces between different material layers, where properties may change dramatically over a few nanometers. Understanding these interfaces is essential for a wide range of applications, including electronics, where interlayer interactions can significantly affect device performance.
  5. Minimizing Artifacts: Using FIB for sputtering in XPS depth profiling helps minimize artifacts that can arise from non-uniform material removal or redeposition of sputtered material. The precision and control afforded by FIB ensure that the depth profile accurately reflects the original sample structure.
  6. Comprehensive Material Characterization: By combining FIB with XPS for depth profiling, researchers can obtain detailed information about the composition, chemical state, and layer structure of complex materials.This integrated approach is invaluable for advanced material development, failure analysis, and understanding material behavior in various environments.

X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy Services

World-Class Equipment

Wintech Nano’s XPS equipment represents the pinnacle of modern surface analysis technology, offering unmatched performance and a suite of advanced features designed to meet the demands of cutting-edge research and industrial applications. The following are some of the standout features of this world-class equipment:

  1. Automated Analysis of Small Areas: This equipment boasts an unparalleled capability for automated, high-resolution analysis of small areas. This feature is particularly crucial for applications requiring detailed investigation of microscale features or inhomogeneities within a sample. Automation streamlines the process, enhancing throughput and consistency while reducing the potential for human error.
  2. High Sensitivity: The sensitivity of Wintech Nano’s XPS system is among the best in the world, allowing for the detection of even the most subtle features in a sample’s composition or chemical state.This high sensitivity ensures that users can identify and quantify elements and compounds at very low concentrations, making it an invaluable tool for materials characterization, contamination analysis, and more.
  3. Scan-Focused X-ray Source: The incorporation of the world’s first scan-focused X-ray source allows for extremely precise targeting of the X-ray beam, enabling users to concentrate the analysis on specific regions of interest.This feature is especially beneficial when working with heterogeneous samples or when seeking to characterize individual microstructures within a larger matrix.
  4. Advanced Depth Profiling: Thanks to its sophisticated ion beam technology, the system offers advanced depth profiling capabilities, enabling detailed analysis of layered structures, interfaces, and gradients. This feature is essential for the comprehensive study of coatings, thin films, and multilayer devices.
  5. High-Performance Data Acquisition: The equipment’s data acquisition system is optimized for speed and accuracy, allowing for rapid collection of high-quality data.This efficiency is crucial in settings where time is of the essence, such as in high-throughput industrial environments or when monitoring fast-changing processes.
  6. User-Friendly Interface: Despite its advanced capabilities, the system is designed with user accessibility in mind, featuring an intuitive interface that simplifies operation and data interpretation. This ease of use ensures that users can focus on their analysis without getting bogged down in technical complexities.
  7. Robust and Reliable: Built to the highest stadards of quality and precision, Wintech Nano’s XPS equipment is robust and reliable, ensuring consistent performance even under demanding conditions.This reliability minimizes downtime and maintenance, providing users with confidence in their results and a strong return on investment.

Automated and Reliable Measurement

The company’s XPS equipment exemplifies the peak of automation, reliability, and high-performance depth analysis in surface characterization technology. 

These attributes ensure that users can conduct sophisticated and accurate materials analysis with greater efficiency and confidence. Here’s a deeper look into these standout features:

  1. Automated Process: The company’s XPS system is designed with advanced automation capabilities that streamline the entire analysis process, from sample loading to data acquisition and processing.This automation minimizes the need for manual intervention, reducing the potential for human error and increasing throughput.Users can easily set up and execute complex sequences of measurements, making it possible to analyze multiple samples or conduct extensive depth profiles with minimal operator input.The system’s software also provides automated data analysis tools, which rapidly interpret XPS spectra and extract valuable information on elemental composition and chemical states.
  2. Reliable Measurement: The reliability of our XPS equipment is ensured through its modern design and construction, which adhere to strict quality and performance standards.The system’s stability and precision are tested rigorously to ensure consistent and accurate results across a wide range of operating conditions.Its reliable performance is underpinned by advanced calibration routines and self-diagnostic capabilities, which ensure the system is always operating at its best.Furthermore, the robustness of the hardware components and the sophistication of the software algorithms work together to provide users with trustworthy data, even in challenging analytical scenarios.
  3. High-Performance Depth Analysis: The system’s exceptional depth analysis capabilities are a cornerstone of its performance, enabling users to investigate the composition and properties of materials across multiple layers.This is facilitated by the integration of precise ion beam etching with XPS measurement, allowing for controlled removal of material layers and subsequent analysis at each depth.The depth resolution achieved is fine enough to discern subtle changes in composition and chemical state at the nanometer scale, crucial for understanding thin films, coatings, and interfaces.This capability is bolstered by the system’s high sensitivity and resolution, ensuring that even minor variations in depth profiles are detected and accurately characterized.

X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy

Our Services in XPS Analysis

Wintech Nano offers a comprehensive suite of XPS (X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy) analysis services, designed to cater to a broad range of research and industrial applications.

These services leverage state-of-the-art XPS equipment to provide detailed insight into the surface composition and chemistry of materials, essential for advancing knowledge in materials science, nanotechnology, and many other fields.

Below is an overview of the XPS services offered by Wintech Nano, incorporating a mention of TEM (Transmission Electron Microscopy) for interlinking purposes:

  1. Elemental Composition Analysis: The company’s XPS services provide precise quantification and identification of the elements present on the surface of materials.This analysis is crucial for understanding material properties, detecting contaminants, and investigating the effects of various treatments or processes on surface composition.
  2. Chemical State Identification: Beyond elemental identification, the company’s XPS can determine the chemical states of elements, providing insights into oxidation states, bonding environments, and chemical interactions at the surface.This information is invaluable for materials characterization, corrosion studies, and the investigation of chemical reactions at surfaces.
  3. Depth Profiling: With advanced ion beam etching techniques, the organization offers depth profiling services to analyze compositional changes and chemical states beneath the surface.This service is particularly important for the study of coatings, thin films, and interfaces, delivering critical data on layer structure, thickness, and composition gradients.
  4. High-Resolution Imaging: Leveraging the capabilities of their advanced XPS equipment, the companyprovides high-resolution imaging services, allowing for spatially resolved analysis of surface features.This service is crucial for materials where heterogeneity plays a key role in their functionality or properties.
  5. Automated and Reliable Measurements: The company emphasizes the automation and reliability of their XPS measurements, ensuring consistent, accurate, and efficient analysis.This approach is ideal for quality control, process monitoring, and comparative studies where reproducibility is essential.
  6. Customized Analysis: Recognizing that each project has unique requirements, Wintec-Nano offers customized XPS analysis services.They work closely with clients to develop tailored approaches that address specific research questions or industrial challenges.
  7. Interdisciplinary Linkage: For projects requiring comprehensive materials characterization, the organization combines XPS analysis with other techniques, such as TEM, to provide a more complete understanding of material properties.This interdisciplinary approach is particularly beneficial for nanomaterials, where the correlation between surface chemistry and internal structure is crucial.

Material Surface Characterization

Signal origin: The depth of analysis extends from 1 to 10 nm beneath the surface. The identification of surface elements or contaminants is achieved through a comprehensive energy spectrum ranging from 0 to 1300 eV.

Detailed scanning is employed to ascertain the content of surface elements or contaminants. The energy resolution stands at approximately 0.48 eV, with the detectable element range spanning from Lithium (Li) to Uranium (U).

The detection precision ranges from 0.1 to 1.0 atomic percent. Given that samples might be exposed to atmospheric pollutants during transportation, Wintech Nano offers in-situ surface analysis and additional surface evaluation following a 5 nm sputter cleaning process to ensure accurate and reliable data.

Elemental Chemical Valence State Analysis

Analysis of peak splitting, conducted on the elemental sweep data, reveals the chemical valence states of the elements.

These valence states are instrumental in evaluating surface oxidation, detecting halogen contamination, and inferring the presence of specific compounds.

When integrated with depth profiling results, this analysis aids in estimating the thickness of oxide layers.

Depth Profiling of Films

The method involves sequential ion sputtering to remove the surface layer of the sample, facilitating a layer-by-layer analysis.

The sputtering can achieve depths ranging from 1 to 500 nm, with a precision of 1 to 10 nm, using argon ions as the sputtering medium.

This process is essential for determining the depth and composition of oxide layers, assessing doping levels and distributions, and elucidating the structure of thin film layers.

Best XPS Services

Application Cases

Our XPS services have been instrumental in providing essential insights across a diverse range of applications, showcasing our ability to deliver precise and actionable results. Here are some real-world examples illustrating the impact of our XPS analysis:

  1. Corrosion Analysis in the Aerospace Industry: In one notable case, our XPS services were employed by an aerospace company to investigate unexplained corrosion on aircraft components.By analyzing the surface chemistry of the corroded areas, we identified the presence of unexpected chemical residues that were contributing to accelerated corrosion.Our findings enabled the client to modify their manufacturing process, significantly enhancing the longevity and reliability of their components.
  2. Semiconductor Device Optimization: A semiconductor manufacturer leveraged our XPS capabilities to optimize their fabrication processes.By characterizing the surface composition and electronic states of semiconductor materials before and after various treatments, we provided insights that helped them fine-tune their methods, resulting in improved device performance and yield.
  3. Forensic Analysis of Contaminant Particles: We assisted a pharmaceutical company in tracing the source of contaminant particles in their drug formulations.Through detailed XPS analysis, we characterized the elemental and chemical composition of the particles, which were then traced back to a specific step in the manufacturing process.This allowed the client to implement targeted measures to eliminate the contamination.
  4. Development of Advanced Coatings: A materials science company engaged our XPS services to assist in the development of advanced protective coatings.Our depth profiling capabilities were crucial in analyzing the composition and structure of the coatings at different depths, providing insights that guided the optimization of coating formulations for enhanced performance and durability.
  5. Investigation of Battery Materials: In the field of energy storage, our XPS analysis played a key role in characterizing the surface chemistry of novel battery electrode materials.By understanding the chemical states and interactions at the electrode surface, our clients were able to optimize material formulations, contributing to the development of batteries with improved capacity and longevity.

Why Choose Us

Choosing Wintech Nano for your XPS analysis needs offers distinct advantages that set us apart in the field of material science and analysis. Our unique selling propositions ensure that our clients receive unparalleled service quality, accuracy, and reliability, addressing the specific challenges of surface analysis with advanced solutions.

  1. In Situ Surface Analysis: We understand that the integrity of surface analysis can be compromised by exposure to air pollutants during sample transportation and handling. To address this, Wintech Nano offers in situ surface analysis, allowing for the examination of samples in their original state, without the interference of contaminants. This capability ensures the utmost accuracy in determining the true surface composition and chemical states, providing a solid foundation for subsequent analysis and decision-making.
  2. Post-Sputter Cleaning Analysis: In addition to in situ analysis, we provide detailed surface examination after sputter cleaning.This step is crucial for removing any contaminants that may have settled on the sample surface during transportation or storage, revealing the underlying material properties.By comparing the pre- and post-sputter cleaning results, we offer comprehensive insights into how air pollutants may have affected the sample, enabling more informed interpretations and actions.
  3. Advanced Depth Profiling: Our ultra-modern XPS equipment allows for precise depth profiling, critical for understanding layered structures, interfaces, and depth-dependent properties.This capability is essential for accurately characterizing coatings, thin films, and materials with graded compositions, providing clients with detailed information on how properties change with depth.
  4. Expertise and Customization: Wintech Nano’s team of experts is adept at tailoring analysis protocols to meet specific client needs, whether for routine quality control, advanced research, or failure analysis.Our ability to customize our approach ensures that clients receive the most relevant and actionable data for their specific applications.
  5. Commitment to Quality: At Wintech Nano, we are committed to delivering the highest standards of quality and reliability.Our rigorous procedures, combined with advanced analytical technologies, ensure that our clients receive consistent, accurate, and reproducible results, reinforcing their trust in our services.
  6. Collaborative Approach: We view our clients as partners and work closely with them throughout the analysis process to ensure that their objectives are met and that the insights provided can be effectively integrated into their decision-making processes.

By choosing Wintech Nano, clients benefit from our comprehensive approach to surface analysis, addressing the challenges of environmental contamination and providing deep insights into material properties. 

Our dedication to quality, combined with our advanced capabilities and client-focused service, makes us a leader in the field of material science and analysis.

Elevate your material analysis to new heights with Wintech Nano! Don’t let uncertainties hinder your progress. 

Reach out to us today to discover how our advanced XPS services can unlock critical insights for your projects. Request a quote or schedule a consultation and take the first step towards precise, actionable results. Partner with us and transform challenges into opportunities!