Failure Analysis

Semiconductor device failure analysis is to determine the form of device failure (failure mode), analyze the physical and chemical processes (failure mechanism) that cause device failure (failure mechanism), find the cause of device failure, and formulate corrective and improvement measures through various tests and physical, chemical and metallographic tests on failed devices.

The general procedures of failure analysis include: collecting failure site data, electrical measurement to determine failure modes, scheme design, non-destructive analysis, opening the package, microscopic inspection, energizing the excitation chip, failure location, physical and chemical analysis of the failure site, comprehensive analysis to determine the cause of failure, and propose corrective measures. The function of failure analysis is to locate the failure point for abnormal chips (signal detection errors), and judge the mechanism of chip failure based on the original design of the chip. Failure analysis requires comprehensive knowledge, including electronics, processes, structures, materials, physicochemistry and many other aspects.

Ⅰ.everal failure modes of PCB:

Virtual soldering


Mechanical damage

Moist stress


Burst board

Media corrosion



Fatigue injury

CAF or ion migration

Stress overload

Ⅱ. PCB failure analysis uses equipment

Optical Microscope


Infrared microscope FTIR

Slice Cross section

Thermal stress


Peel strength

Stretch the tensile test

Withstand voltage Hi-pot

Insulation resistance

Conductivity Omega meter

Ionic Chromatography

X-fluorescent surface thickness XRF/thickness

Dye & pry

SEM/EDX spectroscopy of SEM/EDX

Shear/Pull test

Thermomechanical/differential scanning analysis TMA/DSC(Tg, CTE, TD, cure factor)

Thermogravimetric analysis TGA(Td, moisture content)

Strain measurement (Heat sink process simulation)

Impedance TDR

Water drop test Water drop test

Ultrasound scan SAT

Kaifeng De-cap

Electrical test LCR

Ⅲ. PCB failure analysis technology

X-ray (X-ray)

3D X-ray (CT X-ray)

TDR (Time Domain Reflectometer)

Slice analysis

Ion section analysis

PCB slicing

Scanning acoustic microscope SAT

Infrared microscope Micro-FTIR

Scanning electron microscopy (SEM)

Scanning electron microscopy and spectroscopy analysis SEM-EDX

Photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS/ESCA)

Differential scanning calorimetry analysis DSC

Thermomechanical Analysis TMA

Thermogravimetric analysis TGA

Solder joint analysis

Solder joint mechanical test

Thermal stress

Solderability testing Solderability

Tensile testing Tensile

Surface topography analysis